Cytose is a patented, Medical Food formulated from GRAS approved D-Ribose.

The five-carbon sugar, D-Ribose or pentose, is found naturally in our bodies. D-Ribose is not like any other common sugar.

D-Ribose1 provides the key building block of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)2, and the presence of ribose in the cell stimulates the metabolic pathway to synthesis this vital compound. If the cell does not have enough ribose, it cannot make ATP. So, when cells and tissues become energy starved, the availability of ribose is critical to energy recovery produced by mitochondria.

Mitochondria3 are cellular organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. One of their primary functions is oxidative phosphorylation, a process through which energy derived from metabolism of fuels like ribose or fatty acids is converted to ATP, which is then used to drive various energy-requiring biosynthetic reactions and other metabolic activities. Mitochondria have their own genomes, separate from nuclear DNA, comprising rings of DNA with about 16,000 base pairs in human cells. Each mitochondrion may have multiple copies of its genome, and individual cells may have hundreds of mitochondria.

Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to various disease states. Some mitochondrial diseases are due to mutations or deletions in the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondria divide and proliferate with a faster turnover rate than their host cells, and their replication is under control of the nuclear genome. If a threshold proportion of mitochondria in a cell is defective, and if a threshold proportion of such cells within a tissue have defective mitochondria, symptoms of tissue or organ dysfunction can result. Practically any tissue can be affected, and a large variety of symptoms may be present, depending on the extent to which different tissues are involved.

Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (MADD) or Muscle AMP Deaminase deficiency is a recessive genetic metabolic disorder that affects approximately 1-2% of the Caucasian population.

Myoadenylate deaminase, also called AMP deaminase, is an enzyme that converts adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP), freeing an ammonia molecule in the process. It is a part of the metabolic process that converts sugar, fat, and protein into cellular energy.4

In most people, AMP deaminase deficiency does not cause any symptoms. People who do experience symptoms typically have muscle pain (myalgia) or weakness after exercise or prolonged physical activity. They often get tired more quickly and stay tired longer than would normally be expected. Some affected individuals have more severe symptoms, but it is unclear whether these symptoms are due solely to a lack of AMP deaminase or additional factors. Muscle weakness is typically apparent beginning in childhood or early adulthood.

Symptomatic relief from the effects of AMP deaminase deficiency may sometimes be achieved by administering ribose orally at a dose of approximately 10 grams per 100 pounds (0.2 g/kg) of body weight per day.


Stimulates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and recovery when energy pools have been depleted by disease.


  • Mitochondrial Disease


  • The only Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) as defined by the FDA form of D-Ribose

Product Form

  • Powder
  • 200 g bottles






4) Mark A Tarnopolsky, Gianni Parise, Martin J Gibala, Terry E Graham, and James W E Rush, Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency does not affect muscle anaplerosis during exhaustive exercise in humans, J Physiol. 2001 June 15; 533(Pt 3): 881–889.

View Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Values

Per gram*
Carbohydrate, g  
D-Ribose, g  
Protein, g  
Fat, g  
Trans, g  
* one unpacked, level scoop



Directions for Use

Use under medical supervision. Daily intake to be determined by your healthcare professional specialized in mitochondrial disorders.

Each scoop of Cytose contains 5.0 g of D-Ribose. Cytose must be taken with an additional carbohydrate food source.

  1. Using the scoop enclosed, measure your recommended amount of Cytose.
  2. Consume with a carbohydrate containing food or drink. Cytose can be added directly to juices, beverages or sprinkled on top of or mixed into food.


Store in a cool, dry place away from children. Once opened, reseal bottle and use within 2 months.


  • Type I Diabetics (Insulin Dependent) may have an exacerbation of hypoglycemic effects from ingestion of this product at or above 10 grams/dose.
  • Transient low blood sugar can occur when doses of 10 g or more are taken on an empty stomach.

Additional information

Weight 0.69 lbs
Dimensions 4 × 4 × 4 in


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